From the beginning of civilization, mankind has been trying to live a safe, comfortable and prosperous life. To that end, science has spread throughout the ages; It has become possible to invent new devices. In this way the creative thinking of man has got a visible form. These scientific discoveries have contributed immensely to the development of intellect and mindfulness in the progress of human civilization.
From the earliest times, people used to find different ways to survive or to make life a little easier, to discover different kinds of things. They made various weapons and simple instruments to reduce the risk of life and reduce labor. They changed their way of life with new ways and methods. How to burn food with fire or how to build a house and live safely has all been gradually mastered by human civilization. Man’s longing for this newness and his addiction to discovery have kept him moving forward.
By science we mean special knowledge about a subject, and what people have discovered using this special knowledge is scientific discovery. So it can be said that man has been practicing science since ancient times. From the earliest times, people have used their special knowledge to invent various instruments and methods one after another.
But there are some discoveries in human history that have changed the whole world. Today we will learn about 10 such discoveries in science, what was the history behind it.
1. The wheel
Probably the first discovery to radically change the way people live their lives was the wheel. Many may think it is a discovery again. But this little discovery in 3600 BC opened the door to the infinite possibilities of science.
The invention of the wheel, however, was not a matter of making a round or cylindrical structure. People had learned such a structure even before that. The difficult thing was how to attach this circular structure to a strong and stable structure that would help the wheels turn. And this is the way people come and master at this time. At that time of civilization, people were not far behind in science. Then people learned how to make metal hybrids and also to invent some subtle and complex instruments with it. The only problem was finding something that would reduce their time and effort. In this way they gradually invented a way to move a cylinder-shaped structure from one place to another by attaching it to a strong and stable structure.
We were talking about 10 scientific discoveries that changed human civilization. Well, which word comes to mind first when we think of this human civilization or civilization? Definitely education! And when it comes to education, it is arguably the case with paper.
Muslim rulers learned about this method of making paper in the eighth century and later spread it in Europe by hand.
The first paper mills were then set up in Spain and gradually a number of such paper mills were set up all over Europe. Of course, then paper was used only to print necessary documents and books. It was the British who delivered the paper to the public. In the 15th century, they started producing paper on a large scale and spread it to the colonized countries. And now the method of making paper from wood came by the hands of the Americans. And this is how we get an important element that is widely used in daily life.
3. Printing press
One of the inventions of the fifteenth century was the printing press. It is a mechanical method that applies pressure to the surface of a piece of paper or cloth to create a coating of ink or paint. This lining can be any text or any design or image. In our country, even a few years ago, such a method was used to write or print images. But now the use of sophisticated laser printers or optical printers is more.
Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the printing press. He discovered it around 1440. He was a resident of Germany and a goldsmith by profession. However, the history of printing began much earlier. About 600 years before Gutenberg’s invention, Chinese monks invented a method called block printing. In this method, ink was applied to a block made of wood and a design or text was printed on a piece of paper. This method was also used in Korea and Japan in the 8th century. Since then, printing methods have been slowly developing in various parts of Asia, especially in China.
Also in the fifteenth century another printing method called xylography was prevalent in Europe. It was also a bit like the wooden block method used by the Chinese monks. But it all came to an end with Gutenberg’s discovery. He invented a device with which a mechanical press could be made instead of hand-printing. His machine used the assembly line method which was more efficient than hand printing. As a result, the machine was much more advanced and faster than before.
The invention of the telephone was an unimaginable chapter in the history of science. Imagine for a second you were transposed into the karmic driven world of Earl. Then understand how people reacted after the discovery of this device. There are so many scientific discoveries that if you tell someone before they are discovered, they will call you crazy. The invention of the telephone was one such thing.
Although Alexander Grahambell is credited with inventing the telephone, there is some controversy. Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray both filed a patent application for the invention of the telephone on February 18 at the Patent Office in Washington. However, Grahambell’s application was registered earlier. The patent was registered on March 18. On June 17, at the Philadelphia World’s Fair, Bell presented his invented telephone for the first time in front of a large audience. This device could successfully pass the spoken word from one end to the other.
However, Grambell’s telephone was a bit difficult to use in practice. However, in the 18th century, the Bell Telephone Company began to make telephones easier to use and gradually spread them to the European market.
Electricity is an integral part of the present time. Although it would be wrong to call it a direct scientific discovery. Because it has been a part of nature since the beginning of creation. But yes, making it usable was a brilliant chapter in science.
From the writings of Thelis, it is known that in 600 BC, Westerners knew that amber could be charged by rubbing. However, there has not been much progress in the discovery of electricity since then. In 1800, the English scientist William Gilbert explained the electrification of various substances and used the term electricity for the first time, which is a Greek translation of amber. Then in 180 Otto von Guericke invented a device to generate static electricity.
Then in 1852, Benjamin Franklin conducted a bizarre experiment to show the relationship between lightning and lightning. He performed the experiment on a rainy day using a watch and a key. He flew the kite during the thunderstorm and tied the thread with a key. His idea was that due to lightning, electric charge from the cloud would come through the thread and be deposited in the key. He ate a small electric sock when he touched the key at the end of the test and his idea proved correct. Thus Benjamin Franklin opened the door to the discovery and use of electricity. That is why he is called the inventor of electricity.
Later, however, due to the tireless work of various scientists, electricity was improved. Notable among them are scientists like Henry Cavendish, Charles Coulomb, Ohm etc.
6. Electric lamp
There is nothing new to say about the benefits of electric lamps. Its benefits are not to be underestimated. By removing the night sky, the electric light has not only illuminated all around us, it has also illuminated the future of human civilization.
We know that Thomas Alva Edison invented the electric lamp. However, it would be wrong to say that it was possible only with his hands. Many scientists have worked tirelessly to invent electric lamps. The discovery of the electric lamp began in the 1800s by the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta. Then a scientist named Humphrey Davy showed the technique of lighting an electric lamp by attaching a voltaic pile to a charcoal electrode. In this way, the process of discovering electric lamps continues with the help of various scientists.
However, the journey ended with the hands of Joseph Swan and Thomas Alva Edison. Joseph Swann demonstrated the technique of lighting a lamp by placing a filament inside a vacuum tube in the 1850’s. He used carbonated paper as a filament. However, at that time this vacuum tube method was quite expensive. As a result, his method was remarkable as an invention and not for use in everyday life.
Thomas Alva Edison came forward to solve this problem. His idea was that if the filament could be made thinner and with a higher resistance, it would ignite with very little electricity. Based on this idea, he published his discovery in 189. Since then, Edison and his team have researched various ways to make this lamp readily available and sustainable.
However, due to the contribution of many behind the electric lamp, there was a lot of controversy over its patent. Many scientists were in conflict with Edison. But Edison’s discovery showed the way to the human race.
7. Inflammation engine
An internal combustion engine is a type of engine in which a mixture of fuel and oxygen is inserted into the engine. A spark ignites this fuel and causes a small explosion. The resulting heat and pressure cause the gas to expand. This expansion applies pressure to the engine piston. This process continues and keeps the engine running.
The invention of the incendiary engine began in the early 18th century. At this time some scientists came close to building an internal combustion engine. Then in 180, a man named Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir patented the first commercial combustion engine. However, this engine had only one cylinder and it would have overheated. This engine was capable of covering a distance of about two miles per hour to a three-wheeled vehicle.
The most notable event of the invention of the incendiary engine took place in 18. This year Nicholas A. Auto built the world’s first four-stroke engine. This engine was able to run continuously. That same year, Dallas Clark successfully built the first two-stroke engine.
The invention of the incendiary engine was a landmark in the history of human civilization. This discovery brought speed in the way of human life. This engine is widely used for many other purposes starting from different types of vehicles.
When any part of the body is cut, injured or burnt, it causes bacterial infection in the wound. All these diseases are called infectious veins. And the most reliable medicine to treat this infectious disease is antibiotics. Antibiotics are chemical substances derived from various microorganisms that inhibit the growth of pathogens. However, it is effective only in bacterial diseases, not in viral diseases.
In ancient times, people used to treat various infections with the extract of various fungi and leaves of the plant. The ancient Egyptians used to treat the infected bread with a dirty umbrella. In the case of the Chinese, it has been found that they used soybean seeds to treat fungal infections. Greeks and Indians have used fungi and various plants to treat wound infections. Thus people of different civilizations and regions used different methods to treat infectious diseases.
Paul Ehrlich, a German physiologist, was able to kill the bacteria responsible for syphilis in 1909 by applying a chemical called arsenamine without causing any harm to the body. And this is where the journey of modern antibiotics begins.
Alexander Fleming, however, did not mention antibiotics. He discovered penicillin in 1926. After various improvements, penicillin became very popular all over the world in 1944. At present antibiotics have become an integral part of the medical system.
Here are 10 scientific discoveries that changed the world. But there are also many more discoveries that are no less. Thousands of such discoveries have given us the gift of today’s science and technology based lifestyle. Perhaps many more will be discovered in the future. The world will move forward, to the pinnacle of development.
One of the wonderful discoveries of science is the computer. In fact, the current world is running on this computer. In fact, the role of the computer in human civilization can not be concluded. The things that people used to sweat to do before are now being done by replacing computers. Again, we can do some of these things with the help of computer, it is difficult to imagine those things without computer.
Charles Babbage is said to be the father of modern computers. However, the history of the invention of the computer is about five thousand years old. This discovery began with the invention of a type of calculator called the abacus. This abacus calculator was used in ancient Greek civilization. The next significant instrument was the Napier sister machine invented by John Napier. This instrument used nine different sisters or rates with which to multiply or divide. This device was the first to use the decimal number system.
After that, however, no significant development of computing instruments took place till the seventeenth century. However, this drought was cut short by the hand of Braise Pascal. Braise Pascal was the first to invent the world’s first successful calculating machine, which we now know as a calculator. He could add and subtract with this calculator, but he could not multiply or divide. Pascal later improved the device at various times.
After Pascal, another mathematician named Wilhelm Leibniz was added to the history of computers. Leibniz’s calculator could add and subtract as well as multiply and even find the square root of a number. Then in 1838, the British scientist Charles Babbage developed an advanced calculator called the Analytical Engine. It was a kind of automatic calculator. Its special feature was that it could collect information.
The world’s first automated computer was built in 1944 by Professor Howard Aiken and IBM engineers. The computer was made at Harvard University and was known as Mark-1. It was as proficient as many great mathematicians. In this way the computer continues to improve gradually. And today we can see with our own eyes what this device can do.
The present age is the age of information and technology. And this has only been possible through the internet. The Internet has even revolutionized the computer world. We have arrived at a time when we cannot even imagine a day without the Internet. With thousands of opportunities, the Internet is truly a marvel of science.
The Internet is an unprecedented medium for the exchange and dissemination of information worldwide. It is a medium that transcends any geographical boundary.
The Internet originated in the early 1970’s. J.C.R. Of M-IT. Leclider gave birth to an idea called the “intergalactic network”. In this way, he planned to bring all the computers under one network. Then came the ARPANET or Advanced Research Projects Agency Network in the late 1970’s. It was a network system funded by the United States Department of Defense that brought several computers under a specific network.
Since 1973, scientists have been steadily advancing towards the discovery of the modern Internet, and this process has made unprecedented progress with the discovery of the world wide web or WWW by the famous computer scientist Tim Barnes Lee. His discovery marked the beginning of today’s hyper-link or website-based Internet.
11. Water wheel
According to historian Helaine Selin, the first use of the water wheel dates back to 350 BC in the Persian Empire (present-day Iraq, Iran). Later, this discovery gradually spread to different parts of the world. It was for the welfare of this machine that the beginning of the Industrial Revolution started from irrigating agriculture. As a result, human civilization has advanced very fast. And so, according to many, this water wheel is one of the best inventions of human civilization.
12. The clock
The use of clocks began with the sundial made in Egypt in 150 BC. Since then, in the evolution of time, various types of clocks including star clock, water clock, fire clock, hourglass have been discovered in human civilization. The first clock was invented by the Greek physicist Archimedes in 200 BC. With the evolution of the clock in hand, a portable watch ‘watch’ is made. Then gradually a variety of modern watches began to be discovered. In human civilization, which is being used to determine the right time, it is being used for many other purposes. And so the clock is one of the best inventions of human civilization.