Scientist Nils Bohr was teaching students standing in front of a blackboard. He got the bad news there. Einstein wrote another research paper on attacking quantum mechanics. Albert Einstein famously said that quantum mechanics should allow two objects to affect each other’s behaviour instantly across vast distances, something he dubbed “spooky action at a distance”. Einstein was joined in this article by two other scientists, Rosen and Podolski. This article on Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality was published in 1935 in the American Physical Review Journal. Like that day, all the studies went to the stove. There is a clear answer to this. Bohr began to think, walking with it. It’s Mr. Bohr’s childhood habit. All the arguments play inside his head, his terrible laziness in writing these on paper-pen. He wrote his famous theory of the formation of the hydrogen atom and the scattering of light with his lover and fiance Margred without writing it himself.
Lover’s love is a waste of what anyone else has ever done! Lazy to write, but Mr. Bohr has no pair to argue with, his opponent has no salvation until he admits to losing the argument. Once another Dikpal of quantum mechanics called Schrগারdinger home to argue. Schrdinger fell ill after several days of constant arguing. Schrodinger later recovered from the care of Bohr’s loving wife!
Quantum theory stands on a few ghostly beliefs. Such as wave function, superposition of states and collapse of the wave function. As the object behaves like a wave, the wave function is that wave. This is called a wave of possibility. Throwing a half-up will keep it spinning, entangling it in two possibilities, the head and the tail wave function. If he falls to the ground, only one possibility will survive. From two possibilities the wave function has fallen into one possibility.
Part of the wave function is hypothetical, so there is no way to measure it directly. All this is like believing in ghosts. But the predictions of this spooky theory are fatally accurate. Let’s talk about a hydrogen atom. All his news will go to the wave function of the atom. The electrons of a hydrogen atom can travel in several orbits. According to quantum theory, the electron orbits all at once!
But if I want to measure the position of the electron, it can be found in a special orbit. If 100 scientists experimented on 100 atoms separately in the same way, the results would not be the same for everyone. Someone will see the electron orbiting in number one, someone will find him in number two orbit. There is no such thing as reality or truth, it all depends on the observer and his equipment! Einstein never accepted these strange aspects of quantum theory.
Einstein’s writing in 1935 was a fictional experiment. In such an experiment, all imaginary facts are arranged in the web of argument, from which the truth and falsehood of the theory can be verified. It was not easy to measure the predictions of relativity and quantum theory with the instruments of that era, so Einstein resorted to imagination. “I am an artist, I take the truth of science out of my imagination,” Einstein repeatedly said. This hypothetical experiment is known by many names; Spooky action at a distance, Einstein-Podolosky-Rosen Paradox, or EPR paradox, and Quantum entanglement. This imaginary test has been done in the lab many times lately. Electron-positron pairs, spin of electrons, polarization of photon particles, etc. Can all be used for this test. But I want to write in very ordinary human language, you can take it as a fictional story.
I have a doll in front of me. I separated the doll’s ears with a hammer. I now have a left ear and a right ear. I locked my ears in two separate boxes with my eyes closed, I didn’t know what was in which box. I sat down with a box in this corner of the world. A friend of mine took the other box to a galaxy billions of years away. Our box and the ears hidden inside it are not quantum particles. Yet I assume that the two ears are behaving as quantum particles.
I want to give these two ears another ghostly power, they can talk! Let me hear what my boxed ear is talking about, I don’t know if I’m left or right ear. I am swaying in the wave of not knowing, maybe even nature does not know. Sometimes it feels right, sometimes or left.
If someone from outside came and broke the box, I would not know who I am or what I am! Suppose at this moment I open my box. I got the right ear. My boxed ear let me know, I know, I’m the right ear. My friend’s boxed ear in the distant galaxy heard that, before he opened the box he knew it was his left ear. Now if my friend opens his box, he must get the left ear! The result of opening my box seems to have reached the moment in a galaxy thousands of light years away! According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, no news can travel from one place to another faster than light. That’s what happened here!
Einstein died in 1955. Numerous scientific experiments since his death have unequivocally proved the existence of this haunted communication of quantum particles from afar. What happened to Einstein’s rate? Einstein’s idea of reality has been defeated, but his theory of relativity still survives well. With this ghost dialogue, no one has yet been able to tell the way to send any true news faster than light. According to Mr. Bohr, it is wrong to think of two particles as separate, no matter how far apart they are. Yet much remains to be said. How do two particles at the two ends of the universe communicate instantly? There is no method that people can understand! At the moment of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, this universe was a point, we were all entangled there, that pulse is still intact. Who knows how!
Author: Emeritus Professor, Department of Physics, Illinois State University, USA