Science & History

Einstein’s letter and Hiroshima

Hiroshima, a small but busy island in Japan, has just begun to wake up.
At that time it was 15 minutes past 8 o’clock. Dated August 6, 1945.

Miss Toshiko Sasaki, a tin factory clerk in the city. He just came to the office and sat in his seat. Miss Sasaki turned to talk to her colleague sitting next to her. At that very moment, the whole house shone in a dazzling silent light. He remained fixed in the chair in great panic. Everything is dusty in front of the eyes in an instant.
Miss Sasaki lost consciousness. The roof of the factory collapsed and the people on the upper floor started falling down. Two of Sasaki’s back shelves sped towards him. Sasaki was injured when he was crushed under a pile of books, not a bomb.

At the other end of Hiroshima, Dr. Was sitting comfortably on the veranda of his hospital. Masakazu Fuji. He was getting ready to read the morning paper. At that time, Dr. Saw a glimpse of that mysterious and terrible light. Fuji. It seemed to him that the newspaper was shining in the yellow light. Dr. Was shocked to try to stand up. Fuji. But before that the whole hospital collapsed loudly into the nearby river. And Dr. Was trapped in its ruins. Fuji.

To many who witnessed that mysterious light on August 6, it seemed as if a part of the melting sun had suddenly descended on the earth. Like a meeting fireplace. Among the few survivors in that hellish Hiroshima are two lucky Miss Sasaki and Dr. Fuji. But what they didn’t know was that just a minute ago, the world’s first atomic bomb, called the Little Boy, was dropped on their city. About 80,000 people died instantly that morning. Their favorite Hiroshima has been reduced to rubble in that barbaric attack. Before going to that ruin, you need to know the story behind it.

1905 Scientist Albert Einstein published a special theory of relativity. The world has entered a new era. From this theory of Einstein came the famous equation E = mc2. Here E is the energy, m is the mass of the object and c is the speed of light. The equation indicated that it was possible to obtain a large amount of energy from any object. And the amount of energy is equal to the product of the square of the speed of light with the mass of the object. That is a huge amount of energy from a small amount of matter. Let’s say that converting an object with a mass of one kilogram into energy yields the equivalent of 22 megatons of TNT (tri-nitro-toluene). But even if the matter is understood theoretically, is it possible to get energy in this way in reality? No one still knows that way.

Within decades of this event, scientists were able to peek into the very interior of the object. With the help of quantum theory, tiny molecules and atoms were also learned in detail. Radioactive material has been discovered earlier. In the 1930’s, scientists in Europe and the United States realized that radioactive uranium (uranium-235) could be used in fission methods. Scientists Otto Han and Lis Meitner have shown that it is possible to obtain energy by dividing the nucleus of uranium into two parts. This method is called fission. The world was then on the brink of World War II. So before using this power in daily life, the scientists calculated its use on the battlefield first. Dutch scientist Nils Bohr calculated with his student Wheeler that it was possible to make an atomic bomb. Bor panicked. They met Einstein without delay.

By then, the dictator Hitler had appeared in Germany. Shortly afterwards, World War II began. He started aggression and extermination of Jews in different countries of Europe. Got Europe became a battlefield. A few days ago, Einstein fled from Germany to the United States. As Hitler’s Nazi forces began to occupy other European countries, scientists from those countries began to gather in the United States one by one. Then there are rumors that Hitler is trying to make an atomic bomb. And if this powerful bomb falls in the hands of Germany, there is no defense. Scientists are terrified. The physicists of Europe and America united to save the world from Hitler.

So Einstein wrote a letter to the then US President Franklin Roosevelt on August 2, 1939, on the advice of Niels Bohr and other scientists. The letter warned of the possibility of building an atomic bomb and that it could fall into the hands of an enemy like Germany. It is heard that at the request of Einstein, the world poet Rabindranath Tagore also wrote a letter to Roosevelt urging him to make this bomb.

Hitler was not really sitting. He instructed Heisenberg, the father of the source of uncertainty, to build an atomic bomb. Following instructions, Heisenberg met his teacher, Niels Bohr, in 1941. Bohr sensed impending danger. Without delay, he too, seeing the good days, left his country Denmark and took refuge in Britain. The dictator Hitler fell behind in the race to make an atomic bomb. Because all the famous physicists of that time were in the shelter of America or Britain.

Meanwhile, after receiving Einstein’s letter, the US administration did not do much at the beginning. Although the United States did not take a direct part in World War II at the beginning, it was secretly providing assistance to other countries, including Britain. Again, because of the agreement, the United States had to maintain goodwill with Japan. However, the United States confiscated Japan’s financial assets in violation of a military agreement. Britain and the Netherlands took similar initiatives.

As a result, on December 7, 1941, Japan launched an air strike on Pearl Harbor in the US state of Hawaii. The Pearl Harbor port was reduced to rubble in the two-hour attack. 8 US warships and 13 other Navy ships were severely damaged. A day later, President Roosevelt declared war on Japan. The U.S. Military is planning to retaliate.
It was at this point that Einstein’s advice probably struck them. Within days, the US government approved a top-secret project. Which is notorious in history as the Manhattan Project. It was also funded by the British government. The American physicist Robert Oppenheimer was the chief scientist there. Many well-known scientists, including Niels Bohr, Sir James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, and Richard Feniman, were also involved.

Work on the project began in 1942. Over the next four years, four atomic bombs were made at a cost of 2 billion and with the participation of 175,000 workers. One of them was an experimental explosion in the desert of New Mexico in the United States. The place is known by many as Trinity. The bomb, which exploded on July 16, 1945, was about the size of a baseball. But its power was equivalent to 20,000 TNT. The scientists present that day were stunned to see the explosion of the bomb. Seeing that massive destruction, Oppenheimer quoted a verse from the Gita, the Hindu scripture, saying, ‘I am the destroyer of the earth. I am death. ‘

The reason for reciting this verse was understood a few days later. Exactly 22 days later, the world saw a glimpse of a new weapon. By then President Rudewelt had died. His successor is Harry Truman. At his direction, the US warplane B-29 with Little Boy in its belly named Enola-Gay headed towards Japan. This was the nickname of the second bomb of the Manhattan Project made of uranium 235.

On August 6, 1945, Hiroshima was awakened by the activity of thousands of people. Little Boy comes down from Enola-gay to town before anyone realizes it in the morning. Then a sudden flash of light. A huge frog-like cloud appeared across the sky.

The city of Hiroshima at the moment. Another Dr. Who survived the horror of that day. Beautiful Hida. He described the events of the day as follows: I slowly opened my eyes and looked at the place where the bomb had been dropped. I see black clouds, like mushrooms, coming. At that moment, I flew away like a haystack with my house. ‘

Everyone said. Not as lucky as Heather. Little Boy’s monstrous noise and harmful gamma rays that day, as well as the heat of a thousand degrees, in the blink of an eye about 60,000 people were charred. 69 percent of the houses are covered in dust. The whole of Hiroshima. By the end of 1945, the death toll from nuclear radiation had risen to about two and a half million. A memorial to the wounds and deaths and brutality of World War II. Even today, the Japanese have to carry that generational wound through disability, mental disability and reduced fertility.

On August 9, another atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, without cutting off a trace of Little Boy’s poison. The name is Fatman. This is the third bomb in the Manhattan Project made of radioactive plutonium (Plutonium 239). About 27,000 people lost their lives at the moment of the service. In the end, the death toll exceeded 70,000. Survivors are also victims of horrific radioactivity. Children when the hair of the head rises. Some lost the power to eat. This horrific scene drove the bombing US Major Suu Kyi insane.

This is not the end. The United States planned to drop the fourth bomb of the Manhattan Project on another Japanese city in August. But two consecutive bombings shattered the morale of the Japanese government. Stunned Japan was forced to surrender on 14 August 1945. On the other hand, Hitler, the German dictator of Europe, had committed suicide before him. Thus ended World War II.

But thinking about that barbaric attack 76 years ago, millions of anti-war and peace-loving people in the world are still shocked. Even today, the blood of the innocent people of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, known as the best creatures, has left a great mark on the building of the glory of human conscience.

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