Space

The Collision Between The Milky Way And Andromeda, What will happen on Earth?

In the universe we live in the Milky Way galaxy. Andromeda is our neighboring galaxy. It is rushing towards our Milky Way. Astronomers have confirmed that our galaxy is going to collide with the Andromeda galaxy. So do galaxies destroy themselves in the collision of two such galaxies? What will be the future of everything else, including the earth? Or do scientists have another answer?

Andromeda Galaxy

The galaxy is made up of gas, dust, and billions upon billions of stars and their own solar systems. Our Sun is located in the Milky Way galaxy. The gas, dust, and stars in the center of the galaxy are held together by the force of gravity. Each galaxy has a supermassive black hole at its center to supply this huge gravitational ball. Just as the planets in our solar system revolve around the Sun, so do the stars revolve around a supermassive black hole.

Andromeda
Andromeda Galaxy
Image : NASA

Dozens of galaxies are located near our Milky Way galaxy, and Andromeda is the nearest giant spiral galaxy. The radius of the Andromeda Galaxy is 110,000 light-years. This means that it would take approximately 220,000 years for light to travel from one end to the other. The Andromeda Galaxy is visible to the naked eye in the night sky in the Northern Hemisphere, bright enough.

The radius of our Milky Way galaxy is 52,850 light-years, which is half the radius of the Andromeda Galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy is named after the Ethiopian queen of Greek mythology.

Speed of Andromeda

In 1920, Edwin Hubble and his team saw that most galaxies were moving away from us. But this was not the case with the Andromeda Galaxy or Messiah 31 (M31). Astronomers saw the galaxy rushing towards our galaxy at a speed of 250,000 miles per hour. At this speed you can reach the moon from the earth in one hour.

The motion of galaxies is determined based on the Doppler effect. We have often noticed the Doppler effect of sound waves. The sound is a bit sharper when the ambulance is sounding the siren. Again it sounds a little faint when you start to move away from it. It is felt that the wavelength of sound decreases as the ambulance approaches and the frequency increases as it moves away. The same is true of light waves. So when the galaxies get closer, the wavelength of light becomes shorter, that is, blue shifts. Again when it starts to move away the wavelength increases i.E. Red shift occurs. Thus the velocity of any object in space can be measured by determining the red shift and blue shift.

But it was not immediately clear if the discovery would change the direction of the Andromeda Galaxy. Scientists have since used the Hubble Space Telescope to determine the speed and position of the galaxy through various laborious measurements. About a hundred years later, two astronauts, Roland van der Merrell and Sangmo Tony Shawn, confirmed from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore that the Andromeda Galaxy is now 2.5 million light-years away.

Andromeda vs. The Milky Way

This collision is going to happen in 4 billion years, depending on the distance Andromeda is moving towards us. But will we survive if we are present during the conflict? Or will our Milky Way galaxy be destroyed by a massive collision? The funny thing is that we will survive during the conflict (unless our existence is destroyed in any other way by then). Incredibly, our Milky Way galaxy will not be destroyed!

Milky Way
Milky Way Galaxy
Image : NASA

NASA confirms that the collision will affect our galaxy, the sun and our solar system. The sun will change its position, that is, the sun will move away from the orbit of our galaxy. However, there will be no serious impact on our solar system and the earth. The Hubble Telescope has played a significant role in determining the nature and location of motion in the Andromeda Galaxy. Thanks to the Hubble Telescope, the answer is clear to scientists today.

The Milky Way and Andromeda are gravitating towards each other. The mass of dark matter in the galaxies is working as its driver. Dark matter is a completely invisible object that is affected by gravity but does not interact with ordinary matter in any other way. Dark matter cannot be detected by any means other than the effect of the gravitational ball. Because it has no interaction with any other force, light or object. So for now, Dark Matter is beyond the reach of scientists.

Our universe is constantly expanding. That means one galaxy is moving away from another galaxy. The Andromeda Galaxy is supposed to move away even in this expansion. But why not move away? Because Andromeda is close enough to the Milky Way, so that the dark matter between them can show gravitational effects with each other. That is why they are coming closer to each other by impressing the expansion of the universe.
As our universe is expanding, it can be assumed that at one time our universe was small in size. Due to the small size of the universe, such galaxy-galaxy collisions were very common and common.

An elliptical galaxy is usually formed by the collision of two spiral galaxies. So as far as elliptical galaxies are concerned, almost all of them are much older and may have been formed by the collision of two or more spiral galaxies. The collision of our galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy will create such an elliptical galaxy. With data from the Hubble Telescope simulated on a computer, the newly formed galaxy will take more than two million years to fully integrate and take on an elliptical shape.

These elliptical galaxies are the most common in our vicinity. Although the galaxies will pull very close to each other, the distances of the stars are so great that they will be free from collisions with each other. But after the collision, the Milky Way galaxy will lose the shape of a flat pancake made up of stars orbiting it in a circle.

The zodiac will be lost

The size of the galaxy is so large that the particles, gases, planets, asteroids, and stars in it are quite far apart. As a result, when two galaxies collide, the stars in between do not usually collide and destroy each other. Due to being far enough away, each other’s gravitational balls will change position and speed. A new pattern will be created. The stars of the night sky are seen to be adorned with a certain ornament, from which the origin of the 12 zodiac signs, that particular pattern will then disappear. The position of the stars in the night sky will change and new stars will appear.

Zodiac
Our well-known zodiac; Image: Space

However, astronomers speculate that in addition to the Milky Way and Andromeda collisions, another nearby galaxy will also collide. But it will be long after the collision of the Milky Way and Andromeda. Astronomers see very little chance that this galaxy will hit the Milky Way before Andromeda.

Illustration of the conflict from the earth

The most startling thing will happen when we notice the interlocking world of Andromeda and the Milky Way galaxy. It is doubtful whether any human civilization will survive in our world till then. Because then the sun’s hydrogen fuel will run out and will continue to increase in size. The size of the Sun will increase so much that as it expands, Venus will come into the orbit of the planet and consume Mercury and Venus. The temperature on Earth will be very high.

But still NASA has shown through a few pictures what we will see happen in our sky during the collision through simulation. Excluding solar energy and swelling, we see that the band of the Milky Way galaxy is slowly enveloping the Andromeda Galaxy. The centers of the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies will continue to merge.

1. Currently our Milky Way galaxy which is seen in the night sky as a band. Makes a disk with its stars. The position of the Sun as well as the Earth on this disk so our galaxy can be seen in the form of a band in the night sky. To the left of this disc is Andromeda.

2. In two billion years, Andromeda will be large enough to catch the eye.

3. Andromeda will cover the entire sky in 3.75 billion years. And the force of his gravitational ball will affect the disc of the Milky Way.

4. In 3.9 billion years, they will pass through each other for the first time. Very few stars will collide.

5. As the two galaxies get closer, the gas in them will start to shrink.

6. With enough space, the two galaxies can pass through each other almost seamlessly. Then they will move away again. This will happen in 4 million years.

7. As the gravitational force acts between them, the two galaxies will return to each other within 5.1 billion years. And the centers of the two galaxies will appear together in the sky as a pair.

8. Finally, within 7 billion years, the centers of the two spiral galaxies will merge and transform into elliptical galaxies. The sky will be brightened by the illuminated center of the bright elliptical galaxy in the night sky.

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