Planetary formulas and Kepler

If you keep an eye on the night sky for several consecutive nights, a great thing will catch your eye. You see, every night the stars are moving a little west. Must move on a certain night. In addition, a star moves to the same position every night about four minutes before the previous night.

A year later it was seen in the previous place at exactly the same time. But the planets do not mean this rule. Sometimes they move farther west than distant stars. Sometimes it is seen again the next night — they have moved eastwards than before. This behavior of the planets in ancient times was unexplained.

According to Aristotle’s theory, the earth was at the center of the universe. To explain the motion of the planets on the basis of this idea, Ptolemy proposed that planets revolve around the earth as well as distant stars. However, they are revolving in a circle along with him. This path was called the epicycle.

But the problem is, if this model is correct, sometimes the moon is supposed to be seen twice as close. That means there is something wrong with it. But where exactly is the mistake? And what is the right model?

During the time of the Greeks, many people, including Aristarchus, thought of the sun as the center of the universe instead of the earth. In 1543, Copernicus reintroduced this doctrine. Earlier, some of the Arab astronomers suggested a closer idea. As Abu Saeed Al-Sijji said, the reason for the movement of the stars in the sky is actually the rotation of the earth relative to its own axis.

But if you want to know the correct knowledge, you need information from observation. Tycho Brahe took the job on his shoulders. This astronomer was born in 1546 in Denmark. He is said to be the first able thinker of modern astronomy. The observations he collected after working night after night were five times more accurate than conventional information.

But telescopes have not been introduced yet. He is also the latest notable astronomer to work without a telescope. Yet his observations, on the one hand, were as accurate as they were huge.

The geometric advantages of Copernicus’ model draw his attention. From the observations he can accurately understand, the moon is revolving around the earth. The planets revolve around the sun. However, he mistakenly thinks that the sun revolves around the earth.

That is, he did not fully agree with the Copernican model. Other Copernican astronomers, including Kepler, tried unsuccessfully to persuade him to accept the heliocentric model. He died in 1601 with a misconception.

Kepler was born in 1571 in Germany. During a significant period of his career, he worked in various organizations as a mathematics teacher. He met Tycho in February 1600. It was at this time in the city of Prague that Tycho was collecting his groundbreaking observations with two assistants.

For the next two months he visited Tycho’s house. He thought about the information he got about Mars. At first, Tycho hid his data very carefully. But Kepler’s theoretical knowledge fascinated him enough. As a result, Kepler had the opportunity to think about more information than before.

Kepler’s relationship with Tycho suddenly deteriorated. Eventually the relationship rekindled. He came home with his family and could not return immediately due to various reasons. That was in June. He finally returned to Tycho Brahe in August. Working together began in earnest. When Tycho died suddenly in October 1601, his unfinished business fell to Kepler.

After a long pursuit, he published the first two laws of planetary motion in 1609 and the third law in 1619. From the first source, it is known that the planets revolve in an elliptical orbit around the sun.

Although it has been proven that the planets revolve around the sun, the sun has long been considered the center of the universe. It wasn’t until the eighteenth century that the idea was formed that the center of the Milky Way galaxy might be the center of the universe. And now? Now we know that there is no center of the universe. Why not, we will know another day.

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