What is Nanotechnology?

Nano means very small. Nanotechnology refers to a type of technology that works with very small particles. But how small? 1 nanometer is 1 part of 100 crores of 1 meter. And 1 inch is equal to 2 crore 54 lakh nanometers. 1 nanometer is 1 part of 1 lakh of the diameter of human hair.

Before we get into that, let’s talk about atoms. The smallest particle of atomic matter, which cannot be seen with the naked eye. Even extremely powerful ordinary light cannot be seen with a microscope. The diameter of an atom ranges from 0.1 nanometer to 0.5 nanometer.

All matter in the world is made up of atoms. So scientists wanted to explain the nature, structure, nature of atoms to know the details about matter. Only 30 years ago, with the help of electron microscopy, it was possible to distinguish atoms and analyze their properties. Since then, a new phase of nanotechnology has begun. In this case two types of electron microscopes are commonly used. One is the scanning tunneling microscope, which is operated with the help of weak electricity. Another is the Atomic Force Microscope. The information that this microscope collects is clearly displayed on the accompanying monitor.

The same element can exist in different forms. Such as coal, diamond, graphite. There is only one element in all of them. That is carbon. Yet why are their looks and features different? They are actually made of the same atoms, but differ in their decoration. This is why diamond is very hard but graphite is quite soft. Graphite is electrically conductive but diamond is non-conductive. Graphite is opaque but diamond is transparent. Again, there is a huge difference in behavior between the visible state of the same substance and the atomic state. In the normal visible state there is mass of matter, also occupying space. In this case the nature of the motion of the object can be understood with the help of ‘classical mechanics’. But at the atomic level matter exists in its very basic state.

At this stage the nature of matter depends on the size of the particles. In the smallest state, particles of matter sometimes behave like particles and sometimes like waves. In that case their nature and behavior can be explained by the formula of quantum mechanics.

The formulas and rules of quantum mechanics are different from classical mechanics. So the behavior of the particles of the object at the nano stage is not the same as normal. Suppose you are walking.

On the way there was a high steep wall in front of you. But you can’t go through that. But some of the electrons in the nano world can break through the barrier in front of it. This process is called ‘tunneling’. And because of this process, an electrically conductive object can come to the nano stage and become a semiconductor. The melting point of an object, the behavior of a chemical reaction, the behavior of a magnet, the fluorescence, etc., also change drastically at the nano stage.

So various technologies can be invented using the religion of nano state. Again, with the help of nanotechnology, it is possible to change the structural value of matter or radically change the physical and chemical properties of matter. Thus, technologists and scientists are creating new things every day. It has already been possible to make some objects more powerful, some lighter but more durable, and some more chemically reactive or more electrically conductive.

As a result, the use of this technology is increasing day by day in almost all fields like science, information technology, energy production, ecology, industry, medicine, transportation and transportation, food security etc. In some cases, nanotechnology has revolutionized. About 800 types of goods have already been marketed by converting them into commercial goods.

Scientists are using two special types of nano-designs. One is nano wire and the other is carbon nanotube. Nano wire is a very fine type of wire with a diameter of 1 nanometer, the ratio of length to width is 1000: 1. That is, it can be called a single substance. They can be made electrically conductive, conductive, semiconductor and even ultra-conductive as required. Nano wire is synthesized in two ways. In one method a large piece of the object is broken down into smaller pieces. In another method, one atom after another is added according to the material. The second method is more common.

Nano carbon tube

A carbon nanotube is a hexagonal nano-cylinder made of carbon atoms. It is made by folding (rolling) a thin sheet of carbon atoms. Its religion depends on this fold. That is, although all carbon nanotubes are made of carbon atoms, their properties vary depending on how each atom inside the tube is arranged. They are less active in chemical reactions than carbon atoms, and naturally occurring diamonds and graphites both of which have been incorporated. So they are as strong as diamonds but as conductive as graphite.

Nano carbon tube
Nano carbon tube

They are about 100 times stronger than steel wires, but weigh only 6 percent. Again, it is very effective to make them semiconductor of electricity, which is only capable of conducting electricity in a particular direction.

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